Literature - Case Studies
Scientists take temperature of Yellowstone hot springs
YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, Wyo. -- A new sensor network installed in Yellowstone National Park this summer will provide scientists and the public near “real-time” data on what’s happening in one of the nation’s most active geyser basins.
The network, operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, began automatically transmitting temperature measurements from geysers and hot springs in the park’s Norris Geyser Basin this month.
Ten new, radio-equipped sensors were installed at different spots within the geyser basin, recording temperatures within runoff channels from geysers, hot pools, soils, and even air. The data are saved by the sensors and are then transmitted daily via small radios and the Internet back to the USGS offices in Menlo Park, Calif. where they are archived, plotted and distributed to the public on the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory website.
Data gathered by the new sensors will be accessible within 24 hours of measurement, allowing for rapid assessment of changing conditions. When necessary, the equipment can be queried and the measurements read by YVO scientists in real-time. The information will help scientists track temperature changes in local streams that might correlate with seismic tremors, and help Park officials keep an eye on thermal features for educational and safety purposes.
“This innovative use of new technology will allow the public, park staff, educators, and scientists to observe temperature variations in Norris Geyser Basin, one of Yellowstone’s more dynamic geyser basins,” said Henry Heasler, YNP Geologist.
Yellowstone’s existing temperature sensors, which have been operational about eight years, lack the ability to transmit, making it necessary to visit sensors to retrieve their data.
The project required unique equipment not readily available. The radios had to be small, with unobtrusive antennas so that the equipment could be placed beneath boardwalks and within small rock piles. The radio signal had to be strong enough so that a day’s worth of temperature data could be sent nightly to a base station up to half-a-mile away, and the equipment had to be able to withstand acid waters, steam, and sub-freezing temperatures during Yellowstone’s notorious winters.
“We’ve tried to make the system as robust as possible,” said Jake Lowenstern, the scientist in charge of YVO. “If an antenna fails, the loggers should be able to keep recording and hold on to their data for about a month, and then send all their information once we get out to fix the equipment.”
The equipment was purchased from Marathon Products, Inc. of San Leandro, Calif, with funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Typically, the company’s sensors are installed in refrigerated trucks and warehouses monitoring food and other perishable commodities that require controlled environments.
The temperature-sensor network is part of increased monitoring of Yellowstone by the USGS and its YVO partners at the University of Utah and Yellowstone National Park. This summer the observatory also upgraded seismic equipment, installed a mobile webcam, and deployed water-sampling equipment in rivers around the park.
Last month, the USGS released a document summarizing the protocols and tools that the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory will use during earthquakes, hydrothermal explosions, or other geological activity that could lead to a volcanic eruption. Titled Protocols for Geologic Hazards Response by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, it’s available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1351/.
YVO is one of five volcano observatories run by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program to issue timely warnings of potential volcanic hazards.
For more information and Yellowstone’s Norris Geyser Basin temperature measurements: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo/activity/monitoring/norris/index.php
Another article on the subject can be read at: http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/wyoming/article_a78056a0-c125-11df-b7e8-001cc4c002e0.html?oCampaign=hottopics
The USGS and Marathon Products presented at the GSA Annual Meeting in November 2010 and the ASU Fall Meeting in December 2010 about using Marathon's M5 data loggers to monitor geysers in Yellowstone National Park.
Next Generation Quality Control in the IVF Laboratory
Using data loggers to monitor real time incubator temperature
Quality Control (QC) in the IVF laboratory plays an important role in the success of any IVF program. The role of QC procedures in the IVF laboratory is to fine tune existing protocols in order to more effectively help infertile patients in their quest to have a healthy baby. The three most important physical conditions in the IVF laboratory that can be controlled are temperature, pH and osmolality. Laboratories are required to document and monitor these physical conditions regularly as part of their ongoing QC/QA programs. Monitoring and documentation of temperatures inside incubators, refrigerators and freezers is an integral part of routine day to day QC in the IVF laboratory and is a prerequisite for accreditation by CAP, JCAHO or other agencies. In laboratories with multiple banks of incubators and freezers this is a time consuming and laborious process. In large volume laboratories this process can take up to 1 hour every day. Here, we find a new application for real time temperature logging by introducing this system into the IVF laboratory. Data loggers continuously transmit temperature of incubator, freezer and refrigerator interiors at set programmed intervals directly on to a PC. Maximum and minimum values over a period of 24 hours, high and low temperature alarm notification via phone and email were programmed into the system, documented directly and saved as files. We studied one such data logger from Marathon Products, San Leandro CA, the RF2 data logger with its accompanying MDAS-PRO software and adapted this to the IVF laboratory.
Rush University Medical Center Real-Time Documentation with EDL-RF2 Temperature Data Logger
"Marathon Products’ EDL-RF2 data logging system frees up valuable time in the morning by providing a hands-off approach to QC, where I can check real-time temperatures of my incubators and record this data in the computer for documentation. Easy retrieval of this data during inspection and its simplicity of use make it ideal for the IVF laboratory needs."
Lakshmi Sharma - IVF Lab Manager
Rush University Medical Center
"I have purchased a wireless real-time data logging system for temperature RF ELD-RF2 system from Marathon Products. This system allows for quick and easy QC of my incubators with access to data at any time of the day. It is cost-effective and NIST-certified. I would strongly recommend it for accurate QC and calibration of your incubators.”
Lakshmi Sharma - IVF Lab Manager
Rush University Medical Center
Kellogg's® Cold Chain Documentation with c\temp DSC Temperature Data Logger
How do you know if your waffles are really frozen? Kellogg's created an ingenious solution to monitor the cold chain process of their Eggo® frozen waffles. At the manufacturing site, a special model c\temp dsc (-40C) was placed into selected boxes of the waffles with a recording duration of 180 days. Each box that contained the c\temp had instructions on returning the unit back to Kellogg's for a cash rebate as well as coupons for other Kellogg's products. Upon receipt of the c\temps, temperature profiles were created that were analyzed to show the shipping temperatures from manufacturing site to warehouse to supermarket to customer. Return of the units average over 90%. Quality was assured.
Pepsi-Cola® Ships Gold Standard with ctemp Temperature Data Logger
How do you know if your soft drink tastes the same in India? Pepsi-Cola has manufacturing plants in various countries around the world. In order to maintain consistency of color, flavor and taste, Pepsi ships a "gold" standard to each bottling facility in which the local product is compared to the U.S. product. In order to ensure the "gold" standard was not subjected to temperature fluctuations, Pepsi utilized the c\temp (-29C) to monitor the shipments. Quality was assured.
MKK Constructors Measures Concrete Curing Temperature with echo Temperature Data Loggers
How do you know your $70 million dollar concrete pour is the correct temperature in 0 degree weather? MKK is an engineering and construction company formed by a joint venture between Washington Group International (formerly Morrison Knudsen Corporation), and Kiewit Western Company. Construction of the I-25 interchange is a combined project with the Northwest Parkway Authority of Colorado. When completed, the $1.3 billion E-470 toll road will run 47 miles along the eastern perimeter of the Denver area. During the winter of 2001, MKK began pouring the concrete for the I-25 interchange. MKK used multiple echo data loggers (-29C) with SP16 probes that were inserted within tubes in the concrete to monitor the temperature as it was poured. Quality was assured.